Definition, Immunological Studies, Immune System, Immunity, Immune System and Defense Forces, History of Immunology, Highlights – Immunology.
Definition, Major Targets of Defense System, Defense Mechanisms, Layered Defense, Highlights – Immunity, Types of Immunity, Innate Immunity, Physical and Mechanical Factors, Biochemical Factors, Cellular Factors, Highlights – Innate Immunity, Genetic Factors, Body Temperature, Inflammation, Fever Acquired Immunity, Highlights – Acquired Immunity, Active Immunity Highlights – Active Acquired Immunity, Natural Active Immunity, Artificial Active Immunity, Passive Immunity, Highlights – Passive Acquired Immunity, Comparison of Active and Passive Acquired Immunity.
3. Lymphoid Organs
Introduction, Primary Lymphoid Organs, Thymus, Highlights – Lymphoid Organs, Highlights – Primary Lymphoid Organs, Highlights – Thymus, Bursa of Fabricius, Highlights – Bursa of Fabricius, Bone Marrow, Highlights – Bone Marrow, Bone Marrow Functions as Both Primary and Secondary Lymphoid Organ, Secondary Lymphoid Organs, Lymph Nodes, Highlights – Secondary
Lymphoid Organs, Spleen, Highlights – Lymph Nodes, Highlights – Spleen MALT, Comparison of Primary and Secondary Lymphoid Organs.
4. Immune Cells
Introduction, Role of Immune Cells, Stem Cells, Lymphocytes, Highlights – Immune Cells, Highlights – Lymphocytes, B Lymphocytes, B Cell Surface Markers, Highlights – B Lymphocytes, Highlights – T Lymphocytes, T Lymphocytes, T Cell Surface Markers, Development of T Cells, Types of T Cells, Differences Between T and B Lymphocytes, Null Cells, Macrophages (Mφ), Types of Macrophages, Functions of Macrophages, Dendritic Cells, Eosinophils, Basophils, Neutrophils, Antigen Presenting Cells (APC), Mast Cells, Platelets, Lymphocyte Traffic, Functions of Lymphocyte Traffic,
5. B Lymphocytes
Introduction, Functions of B Cells, B Cell Types, Highlights -B Lymphocytes, B Cell Surface Markers, Highlights – B Cell Receptors, BCR Complex, B Cell Co-receptor Complex, B Cell Development, Proliferation of B Cell, Maturation of B cells, Mechanism of B Cell Activation, B Cell Activation, Btk, C – Kit.
6. T Lymphocytes
Introduction, Functions of T Cells, Types of T Cells, Highlights – T Lymphocytes, Surface Markers of Human T Lymphocytes, T Cell Receptors, Highlights – T Cell Receptor, TCR Complex, Difference Between TCR and Antibody, Development of T Cell, Activation of T Cells, Mechanism of T Cell Activation, Co-stimulation of TH Cell, Clonal Anergy, T- B Cell Conjugate, Immunological Synapse.
Introduction, Antigenic Substances, Structure of an Antigen, Highlights – Antigens, Chemical Nature of Antigens, Essential Factors for Antigenicity, Antigen-Antibody Binding, Functions of Antigens, Types of Antigens, Heterophile Antigens.
Introduction, Structure, Highlights – Immunoglobulins, Properties of Immunoglobulins, Functions of Immunoglobulins, Classes of Immunoglobulins, Immunoglobulin G (IgG),Immunoglobulin A (IgA), Immunoglobulin M (Ig), Immunoglobulin D (IgD), Immunoglobulin E (IgE), General Functions of Immunoglobulins, Direct Attack of Immunoglobulins on the Pathogens, Activation
of the Complement System.
9. Immune Response
Introduction, Highlights – Immune Response, Factors Causing Immune Response, Role of Immune Response, Devices Used in Immune Response, Mechanism of Immune Response, Types of Immune Response, Humoral Immune Response, Mechanism of Humoral Immune Response, Functions of Antibodies Types of Humoral Immune Response, Immune Response Curve, Differences
Between Primary and Secondary Humoral Immune Responses, Factors Influencing the Antibody Formation, Biological Role of Humoral Immunity, Cell Mediated Immune Response, Mechanism of Cell Mediated Immune Response, Highlights – Cell Mediated Immunity, Biological Functions of Cell Mediated Immunity, Cell Cooperations in Immunity, Cell Cooperations in Humoral Immunity, Cell Cooperation in Cell Mediated Immunity, Comparison of Humoral Immunity and Cell Mediated Immunity, Memory Cells, Immunological Memory.
10. Humoral Immune Response
Introduction, Mechanism of Humoral Immune Response, Highlights – Humoral Immune Response, Functions of Antibodies, Types of Humoral Immune Response, Primary Humoral Immune Response, Highlights – Primary Humoral Immune Response, Secondary Humoral Immune Response, Highlights – Secondary Humoral Immune Response, Differences between Primary and
Secondary Humoral Immune Responses, Factors Influencing the Antibody Formation, Cell Cooperations in Humoral Immunity.
11. Cell Mediated Immune Response
Introduction, Mechanism of Cell Mediated Immune Response, Biological Functions of Cell Mediated Immunity, Highlights – Cell Mediated Immunity, Cell Cooperations in Cell Mediated Immunity.
12. Antigen Processing and Presentation
Introduction, Antigen Presenting Cells (APC), Antigen Processing, Highlights – Antigen Processing and Presentation, Endogenous Antigen Processing and Presentation, Highlights – Endogenous Antigen Processing, and Presentation, Exogenous Antigen Processing and Presentation, Highlights – Exogenous Antigen Processing and Presentation, Role of Antigen Processing and Presentation, Cross Presentation.
Introduction, Chemistry of Cytokines, Highlights – Cytokines, Types of Cytokines, Action of Cytokines, Functions of Cytokines, Cytokines and Diseases, Prediction of Inflammations and Infections, Cytokine Therapy, Interleukins, Highlights – Interleukins, Interferons, Interferons Therapy, Highlights – Interferon, Cytokine Storm.
14. Antigen- Antibody Reactions
Introduction, Salient Features of Antigen-Antibody Reaction, Highlights – Antigen- Antibody Reactions, Detection of Antigen-Antibody Reaction, Precipitation, Highlights – Precipitation, Agglutination, Cytolysis, Complement Fixation, Flocculation, Opsonization, Immunofluorescence, Immunological Role of Antigen-Antibody Reactions, Harmful Effects of Antigen-Antibody Reactions.
Introduction, Salient Features of Complement, Structure of Complement 1(C1), Highlights – Complement, Biosynthesis of Complements, Effector Functions of Complements, Complement Activation, Classical pathway, Highlights – Classical Pathway, Alternative Pathway, Highlights – Alternative Pathway, Lectin Pathway, Highlights – Lectin Pathway, MAC (Membrane Attack Complex), Biological Functions of Complement System, Complement Fixation Test.
16. Major Histocompatibility Complex
Introduction, Highlights -Major Histocompatibility Complex, Functions of MHC, Class IMHC Molecules, Structure of Class IMHC Molecule, Class IMHC Pathway, Class II MHC Molecules, Structure of Class II MHC Molecule, Class II MHC Pathway, Cross Presentation, HLA, Genetics of HLA, Highlights – Transplantation, H-2 Complex of Mouse.
Introduction, Factors Causing Hypersensitivity, Highlights -Hypersensitivity, Common Hypersensitivity Reactions, Types of Hypersensitivity, Classification Based on the Time Taken for Reactions, Classification Based on the Different Mechanisms of Pathogenesis, Type I : Anaphylactic Hypersensitivity, Highlights – Anaphylaxis, Symptoms, Type II : Antibody Dependent Cytotoxic Hypersensitivity, Types of Cytotoxic Hypersensitivity, Isoimmune Reactions, Transfusion Reaction, Cytotoxic Hypersensitivity, Erythroblastosis Foetalis, Transplant Rejection Reaction, Autoimmune Reaction, Highlights – Type II : Antibody Dependent Mechanism of Cytotoxic Reaction, Type III : Immune Complex Mediated Hypersensitivity, Mechanism of Immune Complex Mediated Hypersensitivity, Reactions of Type III Hypersensitive, Highlights – Type III : Immune Complex Mediated Hypersensitivity, Arthus Reaction,Type IV: Cell-Mediated Delayed
Hypersensitivity, Mechanism of Type IV Hypersensitivity, Highlights – Type IV : Cell-Mediated Delayed Hypersensitivity, Type V Stimulatory Hypersensitivity.
18. Tumour Immunology
Introduction, Types of Tumour, Properties of Tumour, Highlights – Tumour Immunology, Causes of Tumours, Tumour Antigens, Tumour Escape Mechanisms of Immune Action, Immune Response to Tumour, Highlights – Immune Response to Tumour, Immune Surveillance, Highlights -Immune Surveillance, Factors Involved in Tumour Immunity, Immuno Diagnosis of Tumour, Immunotherapy of Tumour.
19. Autoimmune Diseases
Introduction, Discovery, Characteristics of Autoimmune Diseases, Highlights – Autoimmune Diseases, Causes of Autoimmune Diseases, Pathogenesis of Autoimmune Diseases, Classification of Autoimmune Diseases, Based on the Type of Tissue and Organs Involved, Based on the Type of Immune Response, Common Autoimmune Diseases, Pernicious Anaemia, Thrombocytopenia, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Lupus Erythematosus, Grave’s Disease, Myasthenia Gravis, Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis, Diagnosis of Autoimmune Diseases, Treatment of Autoimmune Diseases.
20. Immunity to Infections
Introduction, Infectious Disease Causing Organisms, Infection, Highlights – Immunity to Infections, Types of Infections, Pathogen Escape Mechanisms, Defence Mechanisms of the Hosts, Immune Response to Malaria, Plasmodium Escape Mechanism, Highlights – Immune Response to Malaria, Immune Response by the Host, Innate Immunity, Acquired Immunity, Immune Response to Tuberculosis, Highlights – Immune Response to Tuberculosis, Tubercle, Immune Response by the Host, Immune Response to AIDS, Highlights – Immune Response to AIDS, HIV, Immune Response to HIV.
Definition, Highlights – Vaccines, Types of Vaccines, Common Vaccines, Development of Vaccines, Mechanism of Vaccines, Attenuated Vaccines, Killed Vaccines, Purified Macromolecular Vaccines, Recombinant Antigen Vaccines, Recombinant Vector Vaccines, Synthetic Peptide Vaccines, Multivalent Vaccines, DNA Vaccines, Importance of Vaccines
22. Immune Tolerance
Introduction, Highlights – Immune Tolerance, Immunological Features of Tolerance, Types of Tolerance, Mechanism of Tolerance Induction, Factors Causing Tolerance, Recovery from Tolerance, Significance of Immune Tolerance.
23. Transplantation Immunology
Definition, Types of Graft, Graft Acceptance, Graft Rejection, Highlights – Transplantation Immunology, Host – Versus Graft Reaction (HVG), Allograft Rejection, Highlights – Host-Versus Graft Reaction, Mechanism of Allograft Rejection, Immunological Enhancement, Graft-Versus Host Reaction (GVH), Highlights – Graft-Versus Host Reaction, Prevention of Graft Rejection, Foetus
is an Allograft.
24. Immunodeficiency Diseases
Definition, Immunodeficiency Diseases, Reticular Dysgenesis, Highlights – Immunodeficiency Diseases, Bruton’s Agammaglobulinemia, Di-George Syndrome, Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Disorders (SCID), Hereditary Neutropaenia, Lazy Leukocytes, Chediak – Higashi Disease, AIDS, Highlights – AIDS, Infection and Life Cycle, Transmission, Disease Progression, Opportunistic Infections, Symptoms of AIDS, Diagnosis, Control of AIDS, Treatment Recognition of Immunodeficiency.
Definition, Blood Group Systems, ABO Blood Group System, Highlights – Immunohaematology, Rh Blood Group System, Medical Application of Blood Groups, Blood Transfusion, Haemolytic Disease, Transplantation, Detection of Culprits, Disputed Parentage.
Definition, Immunization, Active Immunization, Highlights – Immunoprophylaxis, Passive Immunization, Immunizing Agents, Time of Immunization, Hazards of Immunization.
27. Biosynthesis of Antibody
Definition, Site of Antibody Synthesis, Genetical Control of Antibody Synthesis, Highlights – Biosynthesis of Antibody, Genes Controlling the Biosynthesis of Antibody, Assembly of Immunoglobulin, Synthesis of Monoclonal Antibodies, Polyclonal Antibodies, Theories on Antibody Biosynthesis.
Introduction, Double Immunodiffusion, Radial immunodiffusion, Immunoelectrophoresis, Rocket Immunoelectrophoresis, Countercurrent Immunoelectrophoresis, Radioimmunoassay (RIA), Immunoelectron Microscopy, Immunofluorescence, Enzyme – Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA), VDRL Test for Syphilis, ABO Blood Typing, Rh Blood Typing, Widal Test, Well – Felix
Test, Coomb’s Test, Brucella Agglutination Test, HLA Typing, Hybridoma Technology.
29. Monoclonal Antibodies (MCAs)
Introduction, Naming of MCA, Production of Hybridoma, Highlights – Monoclonal Antibodies, Production of Monoclonal Antibodies, Applications of Monoclonal Antibodies, Hazards of MCAs, Chimeric Antibodies, Single Domain Antibodies (sdAb).
30. Scope of Immunology
Definition, Applications in Diagnostic Microbiology, Application in Medicine, Application of Blood Group Typing, Application of Tissue Typing in Organ Transplantation and Tissue Grafting, Application in Evolution, Application in Genetics.
31. Immune System of Fishes
Introduction, Immunological Parameters of Fish, Lymphoid Organs of Fish, Immune Cells of Fishes, Immunity in Fishes, Innate Immunity, Acquired Immunity, Environmental Effect on Immune System of Fish, Compounds that Modulate the Immune System in Fish.
32. Toll Like Receptors
Introduction, Structure of TLR, Types of TLRs, TLR Activating Molecules, Highlights – Toll Like Receptors (TLRs), Activation of TLRs, Immune Reactions Brought about by TLRs, Role of TLRs.
33. Laboratory Experiments
Total Count of Blood Cells, Procedure for Red Cell Counts, Procedure for White Blood Cell, ABO Blood Grouping, Rh Blood Grouping, Production of Antiserum, Double Immunodiffusion, Radial Immunodiffusion, Immunoelectrophoresis, Separation of Lymphocytes, Lymphoid Organs in Rat, Thymus, Bone Marrow, Spleen, Lymph Nodes.
35. Multiple Choice Questions