1. Introduction, 2. History of Physiology,3. Food,4. Carbohydrates,5. Proteins,6. Lipids,7. Minerals, 8. Water,9. Vitamins,10. Vitamin A,11. Night Blindness,12. Xerophthalmia,13. Vitamin D,14. Rickets,15. Osteomalacia,16. Vitamin E,17. Vitamin K,18. Vitamin B Complex, 19. Vitamin B1 (Thiamine),20. Beriberi ,21. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin),22. Vitamin B3 (Niacin),23. Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid),24. Pellagra,25. Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine),26. Vitamin B7 (Biotin),27. Vitamin B9 (Folic Acid),28. Vitamin B12(Cyanocobalamine),29. Vitamin C,30. Scurvy,31. Balanced Diet,32. Energy Value of Food,33. Energy Expenditure of Man,34. Recommended Calorie Requirement,35. Protein Requirement,36. Fat requirement,37. Carbohydrate Requirement,38. Nutritional Requirements of Special Groups,39. Nutrition,40. Malnutrition ,41. Kwashiorkor,42. Marasmus,43. Obesity,44.Anaemia,45. Epidemic Dropsy,46. Deficiency Diseases,47. Hygiene,48. Milk Hygiene,49. Meat Hygiene,50. Food Hygiene,51. Fish Hygiene,52. Egg Hygiene,53. Hygiene of Fruits and Vegetables,54. Personal Hygiene,55. Introduction to Enzymes,56. Enzymes Vs Catalysts,57. Enzymes Vs Whole Cells,58. Nomenclature of Enzymes (Classification),59. Classification of Enzymes,60. Chemistry of Enzymes,61. Enzyme Catalysis,62. Enzyme Activation,63. Properties of Enzymes,64. Mechanism of Enzyme Action,65. Enzyme Kinetics,66. Enzyme Inhibition,67. Factors Affecting Enzyme activity,68. Biological Functions of Enzymes,69. Prosthetic Groups,70. Coenzymes,71. Ribozyme,72. Applied Value of Enzymes in Food Industry,73. Digestion,74. Digestive System of Man,75. Digestion in Man,76. Pancreas of Man,77. Liver of Man,78. Gall Bladder,79. Bile,80. Intestinal Juice or Succus Entericus,81. Role of Enzymes in Carbohydrate Digestion,82. Role of Enzymes in Protein Digestion,83. Role of Enzymes in Lipid Digestion,84. Absorption,85. Absorption of Carbohydrates,86. Absorption of Proteins,87. Absorption of Lipids,88. Physiology of Ruminating Stomach,89. Metabolism,90. Carbohydrate Metabolism,91. Glycogenesis,92. Glycogenolysis,93. Glycolysis,94. Krebs’ Cycle,95. Electron Transport System or Respiratory Chain,96. Oxidative Phosphorylation,97. Energetics of Glucose Metabolism,98. Pasteur Effect,99. Gluconeogenesis,100. Gluconeogenesis of Propionic Acid,101. Gluconeogenesis of Lactic Acid (Cori Cycle),102. Gluconeogenesis of Glycerol,103. Cori Cycle or Lactic Acid Cycle,104. Uronic Acid Pathway (Metabolism of Glucuronic Acid),105. Crabtree Effect,106. Inter-relationship of Metabolic Pathways,107. Hormonal Control of Carbohydrate Metabolism,108. Blood Sugar Level,109. Diabetes Mellitus,110. Glucose Tolerance,111. Glucosuria (Melituria),112. Lipid Metabolism,113. Metabolism of Lipids (Neutral Fats or Triacylglycerol),114. Oxidation of Glycerol,115. Fatty Acid Oxidation,116. Fate of the End Products of Fatty Acid Metabolism,117. Ketogenesis,118. Ketosis,119. Ketolysis,120. Biosynthesis of Fatty Acids,121. Biosynthesis of Triglycerides,122. Interrelationship of Carbohydrate, Lipid and Protein Metabolism,123. Hormonal Regulation of Lipid Metabolism,124. Protein Metabolism,125. Deamination,126. Transamination,127. Decarboxylation,128. Transmethylation,129. Ornithine Cycle,130. The Krebs’ – Urea Cycle is Linked to the Krebs’- Citric Acid Cycle,131. Catabolism of the Carbon Skeleton of Amino Acids,132. Amino Acids Entering by Pyruvic Acid,133. Amino Acids Entering by a-ketoglutaric Acid,134. Amino Acids Entering by Succinyl Coenzyme A,135. Catabolism of Ketogenic Amino Acids (Leucine),136. Catabolism of Amino Acids that are both Ketogenic and Glucogenic,137. Catabolism of Isoleucine,138. Catabolism of Phenylalanin and Tyrosine,139. Inborn Errors of Metabolism,140. Catabolism of Tryptophan,141. Catabolism of Lysine,142. Anabolic Phase of Amino Acids(Biosynthesis of Amino Acids),143. Biosynthesis of Amino Acids from Glutamic Acid,144. Biosynthesis of Amino Acids from Serine,145. Anabolism of Proteins (Biosynthesis of Proteins),146. Hormonal Regulation of Protein Metabolism,147. Respiration,148. Respiratory Organs in Animals,149. Respiratory Organ of Man,150. Mechanism of Respiration in Man,151. Control of Respiration,152. Respiratory Pigments,153. Transport of Gases-Oxygen Transport,154. CO2 Transport,155. Anaerobiosis,156. Respiratory Quotient,157. Biological Oxidation,158. Circulation,159. Circulatory Organs,160. Circulating Media,161. Typical Pattern of Circulation,162. Blood,163. Blood Cholesterol Level,164. Blood Urea Level,165. Blood Sugar Level,166. Haemopoiesis and Erythropoiesis,167. Blood Coagulation,168. Blood Clot,169. Anticoagulants,170. Blood Groups – ABO Blood Groups,171. Rh Blood Groups,172. Importance of Blood Group Studies,173. Human Heart,174. Coronary Circulation,175. Cardiac Output,176. Heart Beat,177. Cardiac Rhythm,178. Regulation of Heart Beat,179. Bradycardia (Slow Heart Rate),180. Tachycardia (High Heart Rate),181. Origin of Heart Beat,182. Conduction of Heart Beat,183. Electrocardiogram (ECG),184. Blood Pressure,185. Heart Failure,186. Lymphatic System,187. Immunology,188. Excretion,189. Excretory Organs,190. Excretory Products,191. Origin of Excretory Products,192. Origin of Ammonia,193. Origin of Urea,194. Origin of Uric Acid,195. Classification of Animals on the Basis of Excretory Products,196. Environmental Influence on Excretion,197. Kidney of Man,198. Nephron,199. Hormonal Regulation of Kidney,200. Diuresis,201. Micturition,202. Kidney Stones,203. Dialysis,204. Nephritis,205. Urine,206. Formation of Urine,207. Hair-pin Counter Current Multiplier Theory,208. Hormones,209. Endocrine Glands,210. Pituitary Gland,211. Growth Hormone or Somatotropic Hormone (GH or STH) ,212. Gigantism,213. Acromegaly,214. Dwarfism,215. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone or ACTH,216. Thyrotropin or Thyroid Stimulating Hormone or TSH,217. Follicle Stimulating Hormone or FSH,218. Luteinizing Hormone (LH) or Interstitial Cell Stimulating Hormone (ICSH),219. Lactogenic Hormone or Prolactin or Luteotropic Hormone (LTH),220. Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone or MSH,221. Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone or MSH,222. Oxytocin,223. Pituitary is the Master Gland – Justify,224. Thyroid Gland,225. Thyroxine,226. Tri-iodothyronine,227. Thyrocalcitonin,228. Cretinism,229. Myxedema (Gull’s Disease),230. Exophthalmos (Grave’s Disease),231. Parathyroid Gland,232. Parathormone,233. Adrenal Gland,234. Glucocorticoids,235. Mineralocorticoids,236. Addison’s Disease,237. Cushing’s Syndrome,238. Adrenaline or Epinephrine,239. Noradrenaline or Norepinephrine,240. Pancreas – Islets of Langerhans,241. Insulin,242. Diabetes,243. Diabetes Mellitus,244. Diabetes Mellitus,245. Androgen,246. Ovary as an Endocrine Gland ,247. Oestrogen,248. Progesterone,249. Placenta,250. Thymus as an Endocrine Gland,251. Pineal Gland,252. Melatonin,253. Endocrine Glands in Invertebrates,254. Nervous Coordination,255. Human Brain,256. Hypothalamus,257. Autonomic Nervous System,258. Sympathetic Nervous System,259. Parasympathetic Nervous System,260. Neuron,261. Nerve Impulse,262. Conduction of Nerve Impulse,263. Conduction of Impulse through Non-myelinated Neuron,264. Conduction in Myelinated Neurons,265. Synapse,266. Conduction of Impulse Through Synapse,267. Neuromuscular Junction,268. Neuromuscular Impulse Transmission,269. Reflex Action,270. Receptors,271. Chemoreceptors,272. Photoreceptors,273. Mechanoreceptors,274. Tangoreceptors,275. Phonoreceptors,276. Rheoreceptors,277. Effectors,278. Ultra Structure of Skeletal Muscle,279. Chemical Composition of Muscles,280. Properties of Skeletal Muscles,281. Tetanus,282. Fatigue,283. Muscle Contraction,284. Mechanism of Muscle Contraction,285. Theories of Muscular Contraction,286. Physico – Chemical Changes During Muscular Contraction,287. Kymograph,288. Body Fluids,289. Intracellular Fluid,290. Extracellular Fluid,291. Interstitial Fluid,292. Electrolytes,293. Homeostasis,294. Water Balance,295. Regulation of Water Balance by Hypothalamus,296. Regulation of Water Balance by Kidneys,297. Role of ADH in Body Fluid Regulation,298. Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS),299. Electrolyte Balance,300. Body Buffer System,301. Acid Base Balance,302. Acidosis,303. Alkalosis,304. Osmoregulation,305. Mechanism of Osmoregulation,306. Classification of Animals on the Basis of Osmoregulation,307. Osmoregulation in Crustaceans,308. Osmoregulation in Chordates,309. Osmoregulation in Fishes,310. Osmoregulation in Amphibia,311. Osmoregulation in Reptiles,312. Osmoregulation in Birds,313. Osmoregulation in Mammals,314. Thermoregulation,315. Thermoregulation in Camel,316. Bioluminescence,317. Reproduction,318. Asexual Reproduction,319. Sexual Reproduction,320. Male Reproductive System,321. Female Reproductive System,322. Oestrous Cycle,323. Reproductive Cycles,324. Menstrual Cycle,325. Pregnancy,326. Parturition,327. Hormonal Control of Reproductive Cycles,328. Menopause,329. Lactation,330. Birth Control,331. Physical Barriers of Birth Control,332. Hormonal Methods of Birth Control,333. Surgical Methods of Birth Control,334. Chronobiology,335. Biological Clock,336. Behaviour,337. Aging (Senescence),338. Practicals,339. Spotters,340. University Questions,341. Glossary,Index,